1. Before even beginning to think of making a passed pawn, put all your pieces into as good positions as possible.
Queen – Center of board
Rooks – seventh rank for White, second rank for Black. But if the enemy has two or more minor pieces the rook must be careful about leaving his own camp and must be content with commanding the open file.
Knights – Square in the center or in the enemy camp, supported by a pawn which is cannot be attacked by a pawn.
Bishops – Center diagonals; pawn support is not essential but desirable.
King – Central, provided that he is not dangerously exposed. If the enemy has a rook, the King is best posted at or adjacent to e2(e7) or d2(d7) – fairly near the center, but still preventing the enemy rook from seizing the second (seventh) or first (eight) rank.
2. Avoid pawn-moves while you are getting your pieces well positioned because pawn-moves create lasting weaknesses and thus make your task harder.
3. Try to free your position from weaknesses; and if possible, make it hard for the opponent to do likewise.
4. When trying to win, keep pawns on both wings. When trying to draw, play to eliminate all the pawns on one wing. With pawns on one wing only, a pawn plus is usually insufficient for a win.
5. If you are a pawn up or more, exchange pieces (not pawns) wherever you can do so without losing in position.
Exception: do not rush an exchange that will leave you with a single bishop running on the opposite color to the enemy’s single bishop. Also, refrain from exchanging if it will give your opponent two bishops against bishop and knight.